Recently, the UN-Habitathas identified issues associated with Jaipur city like multi hazard vulnerabilities, weak mobility and Green-Blue economy and has laid out a plan to increase sustainability in the city.
The urban problems which persist in Jaipur are the same for other cities.
UN-Habitat has based its findings on sustainable cities integrated approach pilot project and a “sustainable urban planning and management” component was implemented in partnership with the Jaipur Development Authority and Jaipur Greater Municipal Corporation.
The project has received funding from the Global Environment Facility (GEF-6) to estimate the carbon sequestration potential of Indian cities.
WHAT IS THE FINDINGS OF THE PROJECT?
Jaipur got an overall sustainability rating of three on the Urban Sustainability Assessment Framework (USAF) based on the information collected for 87 of its 131 parameters.
The Urban Sustainability Assessment Framework (USAF) developed under the Sustainable Cities Integrated Approach Pilot (SCIAP) project, implemented by United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and UN-Habitat.
The UN-Habitat highlighted the following problems which are faced by the city:
Weak access to a public transportation system, with less number of buses and poor route delineation.
Lack green cover which has resulted in the urban heat island effect that has disrupted biodiversity.
WHAT ARE THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF UN-HABITAT?
Experts recommended measures that increase the green cover, strengthen urban biodiversity, and thereby enhance the quality of life for citizens.
To address the challenges of urban sprawling, the UN-Habitat emphasised the idea of a compact city with re-development and re-densification of the existing urban areas.
Experts also recommended that linking the distance from the main city to the development charges imposed on citizens could be considered as an indirect measure to curb development on the city’s outskirts.
To improve the situation of public transportation, fare integration for different modes of transport and enhancing the non-motorised transport infrastructure would make movement convenient and reduce traffic and vehicle emissions.
The 800 dry wells in Jaipur’s Walled City could be used for rainwater harvesting and raising the water table, mitigating urban floods and ensuring efficient utilisation of water resources.
Eco-trails with plantations along natural drainage channels and railway tracks are recommended in the city.
Experts from the Tourism & Wildlife Society of India (TWSI) said that the urban development authorities should measure oxygen produced and carbon dioxide released each day in each urban complex and plan the green cover accordingly and also select the species of plants with utmost caution since only indigenous, broad-leaved and tap-root trees produce more shade and oxygen.
WHAT IS THE UN-HABITAT?
The United Nations Human Settlements Programme is the United Nations programme for human settlements and sustainable urban development.
It was established in 1978 as an outcome of the First UN Conference on Human Settlements and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat I) held in Vancouver, Canada, in 1976.
UN-Habitat maintains its headquarters at the United Nations Office at Nairobi, Kenya.
It is mandated by the United Nations General Assemblyto promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. The mandate of UN-Habitat derives from the Habitat Agenda, adopted by the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) in Istanbul, Turkey, in 1996.
The twin goals of the Habitat Agenda are:
Adequate shelter for all
The development of sustainable human settlements in an urbanizing world
WHAT IS GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL FACILITY(GEF)?
It is an independently operating financial organization.
GEF is a multilateral financial mechanism that provides grants to developing countries for projects that benefit the global environment and promote sustainable livelihoods in local communities.
According to the Census of 2011 approximately 31% of population of India lives in cities and it is estimated that it contributes more than 6o% in the GDP of India and in the upcoming years it is estimated in different reports that it will comprise of approximately 70% population with increased GDP contribution.
The increasing population of urban areas also increases urban challenges like congested space, proliferation of slums etc. Thus, there is a need to pursue sustainable model for the inclusive and healthy development of the cities.
It is an integral part of NTPC’s Environmental Policy and its objectives are aligned with environmental and sustainability policies.
WHAT ARE THE OBJECTIVES OF THE POLICY?
Support Professionals to achieve Biodiversity Target:
The policy is designed to support all the professionals of the NTPC Group to help them contribute toward the achievement of the targets set in this field.
NTPC has always been mindful about avoiding operations in areas with the highest biodiversity value and judiciously selecting project sites.
Company's efforts will be further strengthened to ensure that biodiversity is not lost at any of its currently operating sites and that there is a net positive balance wherever possible.
Mainstreaming the Concept of Biodiversity:
The major aim is to mainstream the concept of biodiversity across NTPC’s value chain.
It also aims to adopt a precautionary approach for sustainable management of biodiversity in all the decision-making processes to ensure the Earth's variety of life in and around the business units of NTPC.
Addressing Local Threats:
The policy also aims to adopt systematic consideration of local threats to biodiversity beyond the company’s business activities.
WHAT ARE THE OTHER RELATED STEPS TAKEN BY NTPC?
NTPC is raising awareness among local communities, employees, and its associates across the supply chain about biodiversity through project-specific and national level training in collaboration with experts.
NTPC is also collaborating with local communities, organizations, regulatory agencies and research institutes of national/international repute in the field of biodiversity.
Adhering to Legal Compliances:
NTPC will be adhering to legal compliances with respect to biodiversity by complying with rules and regulations related to the environment, forest, wildlife, coastal zone, and green cover during planning and execution of its projects.
Related Agreement Signed:
NTPC has signed a five-year agreement with Andhra Pradesh Forest Department for conservation of Olive Ridley Turtles in the coastline of Andhra Pradesh.
WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY?
It refers to the variety of living species on Earth, including plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi.
While Earth’s biodiversity is so rich that many species have yet to be discovered, many species are being threatened with extinction due to human activities, putting the Earth’s magnificent biodiversity at risk.
Biodiversity Hotspot: India is home to nearly 8% of global biodiversity on just 2.3% of global land area and contains sections of four of the 36 global biodiversity hotspots.
Staggering Economic Value: While the precise economic value of all ecosystem services provided by biodiversity may not be known, estimates suggest that India’s forests alone may yield services worth more than a trillion rupees per year.
Further, it can be imagined how much greater this value will be with grasslands, wetlands, freshwater, and marine can add.
Protection From Natural Disasters: The varied ecosystems across land, rivers, and oceans, feed our people, enhance public health security, and shield us from environmental disasters.
Spiritual Enrichment: Our biodiversity also serves as a perpetual source of spiritual enrichment, intimately linked to our physical and mental well-being.
India Business & Biodiversity Initiative (IBBI): It serves as a national platform for businesses and its stakeholders for dialogue sharing and learning, ultimately leading to mainstreaming sustainable management of biological diversity into businesses.
NTPC is India’s largest power utility with an installed capacity of 68,961.68 MW plans to become a 130 GW company by 2032.
Established in 1975, NTPC aims to be the world’s largest and best power major.
NTPC has comprehensive Rehabilitation & Resettlement and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policies well integrated with its core business of setting up power projects and generating electricity.
The company is committed to generating reliable power at competitive prices in a sustainable manner by optimising the use of multiple energy sources with innovative eco-friendly technologies thereby NTPC is contributing to the economic development of the nation and upliftment of the society.
Recently, India's biggest Drone Festival - Bharat Drone Mahotsav 2022 was inaugurated in New Delhi by the Prime Minister.
A virtual award of drone pilot certificates, panel discussions, product launches, display of a ‘Made in India’ Drone Taxi prototype, flying demonstrations, among others were the key events.
WHAT ARE DRONES?
Droneis a layman terminology for Unmanned Aircraft (UA).
Originally developed for the military and aerospace industries, drones have found their way into the mainstream because of the enhanced levels of safety and efficiency they bring.
A drone’s autonomy level can range from remotely piloted (a human controls its movements) to advanced autonomy, which means that it relies on a system of sensors and LIDAR detectors to calculate its movement.
WHAT ARE THE APPLICATIONS OF DRONE TECHNOLOGY?
Agriculture: In the agriculture sector, micronutrients can be spread with the help of drones.
It can also be used for performing surveys for identifying the challenges faced by the farmers.
Defence: Drone system can be used as a symmetric weapon against terrorist attacks.
Drones can be integrated into the national airspace system.
Deployment of drones for combat, communication in remote areas, counter-drone solutions can be done.
Monitoring: The drone technology in the SVAMITVA scheme launched by the Government of India, within less than a year, has helped about half a million village residents to get their property cards by mapping out the densely-populated areas.
Drones can be used for real-time surveillance of assets and transmission lines, theft prevention, visual inspection/maintenance, construction planning and management, etc
They can be used for anti-poaching actions, monitoring of forests and wildlife, pollution assessment, and evidence gathering.
Law Enforcement: Drones are also significant for the law enforcement agencies, the fire and emergency services wherever human intervention is not safe and the healthcare services.
WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF DRONE MAHOTSAV?
Promotion of drone technology is another medium of advancing our commitment to good governance and ease of living.
We have got a smart tool in the form of drones that is going to be part and parcel of common people’s lives.
As drone technology has its application in diverse areas such as defence, disaster management, agriculture, healthcare, tourism, film and entertainment, there is a great possibility of a major revolution creating immense opportunities for employment.
Villages are witnessing the arrival of roads, electricity, optical fibre and digital technology. However, agriculture work is still being conducted in old ways, leading to hassles, low productivity and wastage.
Drone technology is going to play a major role in empowering farmers and modernize their lives.
The PLI Scheme for the drones and drone components industry addresses the strategic, tactical, and operational uses of this revolutionary technology.
WHAT IS THE DRONE SHAKTI SCHEME?
The Union Budget pushed for promotion of drones through startups and skilling at Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs).
Startups will be promoted to facilitate ‘Drone Shakti’ through varied applications and for Drone-As-A-Service (DrAAS). Courses for skilling will also be started in selected ITIs across all States.
DrAAS allows enterprises to avail various services from drone companies, removing the need for them to invest in drone hardware or software, pilots, and training programmes.
Sectors where drones can be employed are endless. These include photography, agriculture, mining, telecom, insurance, telecom, oil & gas, construction, transport, disaster management, geo-spatial mapping, forest and wildlife, defence and law enforcement to name a few.
Drones will also be promoted for crop assessment, digitisation of land records, spraying of insecticides and nutrients (Kisan Drones).
The drone services industry is expected to grow to over Rs 30,000 crore in next three years and generate over five lakh jobs.
A few months earlier, there were a lot of restrictions on drones. However, most of the restrictions have now been removed in a very short span of time.
Easy access to technology will help in furthering the vision of saturation and in ensuring last-mile delivery.
Government is trying to make technology available to the masses to impart new strength, speed and scale to the country.
Around 1 in 150 individuals with WNS is likely to develop a more severe form of disease.
It may take several weeks or months to recover from severe illness.
Nervous system damage can last forever.
In persons with co-morbidities and immuno-compromised persons (such as transplant patients), the disease may turn out to be fatal.
Measures of Prevention:
The establishment of an active animal health surveillance system to detect new cases in birds and horses should be essentially established.
As WNV outbreaks in animals precede human cases, it is necessary to provide early warning for veterinary and human public health authorities.
The European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (ECDC) has suggested that 28-day blood donor deferral or nucleic acid testing of prospective donors who have visited or lived in an affected area should be implemented by the European Union (EU).
Besides, testing for WNV infection must be done for the donors of organs, tissues and cells, who are living in or returning from an affected area.
As of now, no treatment/vaccine for WNV is available.
Only supportive treatments can be provided to neuroinvasive WNV patients.
The day is intended to provide an opportunity to bring attention to activities that are connected with the dairy sector.
This year’s theme will highlight the work already being done to accelerate climate action and help reduce the dairy sector’s impact on the planet.
Using the World Milk Day platform, awareness of the messaging and action will be raised towards Dairy Net Zero.
It is encouraged to talk about the important contributions of the dairy sector to:
Good food, health and nutrition
Farmers caring responsible for their communities, the land and their animals
Sustainability practices in the dairy sector
How dairy contributes to economic development and livelihood
Indian Dairy Sector:
India is the world's largest milk producer, with 22% of global production, followed by the United States of America, China, Pakistan and Brazil.
Milk production in the country has grown at a compound annual growth rate of about 6.2% to reach 209.96 mn tonnes in 2020-21 from 146.31 mn tonnes in 2014
The top 5 milk-producing states are: Uttar Pradesh (14.9%), Rajasthan (14.6%), Madhya Pradesh (8.6%), Gujarat (7.6%) and Andhra Pradesh (7.0%).
WHAT ARE THE INITIATIVES OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA RELATED TO DAIRY SECTOR?
Rashtriya Gokul Mission: This mission is launched to improve productivity and enhance milk production through genetic upgradation of bovine population and development and conservation of indigenous bovine breeds.
Gopal Ratna Award 2021: Gopal Ratna Award is given to encourage all individual farmers, artificial insemination technicians and Dairy cooperative societies working in this sector.
e-GOPALA app: A comprehensive breed improvement marketplace and information portal for direct use of farmers in the form of the e-GOPALA app (Generation of Wealth through Productive Livestock)
National Programme for Dairy Development (NPDD): “National Programme for Dairy Development (NPDD)” is launched across the country since 2014 with an objective of strengthening of infrastructure for Production of quality milk, Procurement, Processing and Marketing of Milk & Milk Products through State Implementing Agency (SIA) i.e State Cooperative Dairy Federation.
Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying has introduced a new component “interest subvention on Working capital loans for Dairy sector” as one of the components under its scheme SDC&FPO.
Kisan Credit Card (KCC) for Animal Husbandry & Dairying Farmers: Through Kisan Credit Cards, farmers are enabled to gain access to institutional credit at concessional interest rate for working capital expenditure.